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Developing a safe and reliable space vehicle requires good design and good manufacturing, or in other words "design it right and build it right". A great design can be hard to build or manufacture mainly due to difficulties related to quality. Specifically, process control can be a challenge. As a result, the system suffers from low quality which leads to low reliability and high system risk. The Space Shuttle has experienced some of those cases, but has overcome these difficulties...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROSPACE SAFETY, AUGMENTATION, EXTERNAL TANKS, THERMAL...

The effect of a pressure gradient on the local heating disturbance of rectangular cavities tested at hypersonic freestream conditions has been globally assessed using the two-color phosphor thermography method. These experiments were conducted in the Langley 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel and were initiated in support of the Space Shuttle Return-To-Flight Program. Two blunted-nose test surface geometries were developed, including an expansion plate test surface with nearly constant negative pressure...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CAVITY FLOW, PRESSURE GRADIENTS, TEMPERATURE EFFECTS, SPACE...

A damage tolerance assessment was conducted of an 8,000 gallon pressurized Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank. The LOX tank is constructed of a stainless steel pressure vessel enclosed by a thermal-insulating vacuum jacket. The vessel is pressurized to 2,250 psi with gaseous nitrogen resulting in both thermal and pressure stresses on the tank wall. Finite element analyses were performed on the tank to characterize the stresses from operation. Engineering material data was found from both the construction...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DAMAGE, LIQUID OXYGEN, STORAGE TANKS, TOLERANCES (MECHANICS),...

We develop a model for a large array ground receiver system for use in deep-space communications, and analyze the resulting array channel capacity. The model includes effects of array geometry, time-dependent spacecraft orbital trajectory, point and extended interference sources, and elevation-dependent noise and tropospheric channel variations. Channel capacity is expressed as the ratio of determinants of covariance matrices characterizing source, interference, and additive noise, and then...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CHANNEL CAPACITY, ANTENNA DESIGN, ANTENNA ARRAYS,...

The choice of power conversion technology is critical in directing the design of a space vehicle for the future NASA mission to Mars. One candidate design consists of a foil bearing supported turbo alternator driven by a helium-xenon gas mixture heated by a nuclear reactor. The system is a closed-loop, meaning there is a constant volume of process fluid that is sealed from the environment. Therefore, foil bearings are proposed due to their ability to use the process gas as a lubricant. As such,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FOIL BEARINGS, GAS BEARINGS, NUCLEAR ELECTRIC POWER...

This paper documents a research effort on reduced gravity soldering of plated through hole joints which was conducted jointly by the National Center for Space Exploration Research, NASA Glenn Research Center, and NASA Johnson Space Center. Significant increases in joint porosity and changes in external geometry were observed in joints produced in reduced gravity as compared to normal gravity. Multiple techniques for mitigating the observed increase in porosity were tried, including several...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOLDERING, PRESSURE EFFECTS, POROSITY, MOISTURE,...

The key goals and objectives for an In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot are to support a safe, reliable, affordable and effective future human and robotic space exploration initiative. Previous studies have been conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to determine technical requirements and feasibility for exploration and commercial potential of an in-space cryogenic propellant depot in low-Earth-orbit (LEO), low-Lunar orbit (LLO) and/or on the lunar surface. Results indicate that...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CRYOGENIC ROCKET PROPELLANTS, CRYOGENIC FLUID STORAGE,...

When the Deep Impact Mission hit Jupiter Family comet 9P/Tempel 1, an ejecta crater was formed and an pocket of volatile gases and ices from 10-30 m below the surface was exposed (A Hearn et aI. 2005). This resulted in a gas geyser that persisted for a few hours (Sugita et al, 2005). The gas geyser pushed dust grains into the coma (Sugita et a1. 2005), as well as ice grains (Schulz et al. 2006). The smaller of the dust grains were submicron in radii (0-25.3 micron), and were primarily composed...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMETS, COMETARY ATMOSPHERES, INTERPLANETARY DUST, AMORPHOUS...

The present invention provides a network device interface and method for digitally connecting a plurality of data channels, such as sensors, actuators, and subsystems, to a controller using a network bus. The network device interface interprets commands and data received from the controller and polls the data channels in accordance with these commands. Specifically, the network device interface receives digital commands and data from the controller, and based on these commands and data,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ACTUATORS, CHANNELS (DATA TRANSMISSION), CONNECTORS,...

A method of evolving a circuit uses a heterogenous mix of models of both high and low levels of resolution.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CIRCUITS, HIGH RESOLUTION, PATENTS, Stoica, Adrian [Inventor]

The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) was developed to support atmospheric studies at various scales with measurements from worldwide distributed autonomous sunphotometers [Holben et al. 1998]. AERONET has now extended its support to marine applications through the additional capability of measuring the radiance emerging from the sea with modified sun-photometers installed on offshore platforms like lighthouses, navigation aids, oceanographic and oil towers. The functionality of this added...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OCEANOGRAPHY, AEROSOLS, MARINE TECHNOLOGY, REMOTE SENSING,...

Abstract In the control-based approach to robotics, complex behavior is created by sequencing and combining control primitives. While it is desirable for the robot to autonomously learn the correct control sequence, searching through the large number of potential solutions can be time consuming. This paper constrains this search to variations of a generalized solution encoded in a framework known as an action schema. A new algorithm, SCHEMA STRUCTURED LEARNING, is proposed that repeatedly...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONTROLLERS, ROBOTICS, SEQUENTIAL CONTROL, MACHINE LEARNING,...

An experimental study was conducted to examine the aerodynamic and flow field characteristics of hyper-elliptic cambered span (HECS) wings and compare results with more conventional configurations used for induced drag reduction. Previous preliminary studies, indicating improved L/D characteristics when compared to an elliptical planform prompted this more detailed experimental investigation. Balance data were acquired on a series of swept and un-swept HECS wings, a baseline elliptic planform,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS, CAMBERED WINGS, FLOW...

Using unstructured mesh CFD methods for Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustics (PAA) analysis has the distinct advantage of precise and fast computational mesh generation for complex propulsion and airframe integration arrangements that include engine inlet, exhaust nozzles, pylon, wing, flaps, and flap deployment mechanical parts. However, accurate solution values of shear layer velocity, temperature and turbulence are extremely important for evaluating the usually small noise differentials of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROACOUSTICS, AIRFRAMES, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...

This paper discusses the Space Shuttle Lift-off CFD model developed for potential Lift-off Debris transport for return-to-flight. The Lift-off portion of the flight is defined as the time starting with tanking of propellants until tower clear, approximately T0+6 seconds, where interactions with the launch pad cease. A CFD model containing the Space Shuttle and launch Pad geometry has been constructed and executed. Simplifications required in the construction of the model are presented and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, SPACECRAFT LAUNCHING, DEBRIS,...

Videogrammetric measurement technique developments at NASA Langley were driven largely by the need to quantify model deformation at the National Transonic Facility (NTF). This paper summarizes recent wind tunnel applications and issues at the NTF and other NASA Langley facilities including the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel, 8-Ft high Temperature Tunnel, and the 20-Ft Vertical Spin Tunnel. In addition, several adaptations of wind tunnel techniques to non-wind tunnel...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ELASTIC DEFORMATION, WIND TUNNEL MODELS, PHOTOGRAPHIC...

Astronaut crew medical officers (CMO) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) receive 40 hours of medical training during the 18 months preceding each mission. Part of this training ilncludes twoperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) per training guidelines from the American Heart Association (AHA). Recent studies concluded that the use of metronomic tones improves the coordination of CPR by trained clinicians. Similar data for bystander or "trained lay people" (e.g. CMO)...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ADULTS, HEART FUNCTION, TIMING DEVICES, CARDIOLOGY, AEROSPACE...

The CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) mission is a comprehensive suite of active and passive sensors including a 20Hz 230mj Nd:YAG lidar, a visible wavelength Earth-looking camera and an imaging infrared radiometer. CALIPSO flies in formation with the Earth Observing System Post-Meridian (EOS PM) train, provides continuous, near-simultaneous measurements and is a planned 3 year mission. CALIPSO was launched into a 98 degree sun synchronous Earth orbit...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MICROPROCESSORS, REMOTE SENSING, AVIONICS, SPACECRAFT...

The NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation examined in depth several rotorcraft configurations for large civil transport, designed to meet the technology goals of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The investigation identified the Large Civil Tiltrotor as the configuration with the best potential to meet the technology goals. The design presented was economically competitive, with the potential for substantial impact on the air transportation system. The keys to achieving a competitive...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATIONS, ROTARY WING AIRCRAFT, TILT ROTOR...

A miniature, ultra-high resolution, and color scanning microscope using microchannel and solid-state technology that does not require focus adjustment. One embodiment includes a source of collimated radiant energy for illuminating a sample, a plurality of narrow angle filters comprising a microchannel structure to permit the passage of only unscattered radiant energy through the microchannels with some portion of the radiant energy entering the microchannels from the sample, a solid-state...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MICROCHANNELS, MICROSCOPES, SCANNING, RADIANT FLUX DENSITY,...

A method, apparatus, and system provide the ability for storing holograms at high speed. A single laser diode emits a collimated laser beam to both write to and read from a photorefractice crystal. One or more liquid crystal beam steering spatial light modulators (BSSLMs) or Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) mirrors steer a reference beam, split from the collimated laser beam, at high speed to the photorefractive crystal.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BEAM STEERING, HIGH SPEED, HOLOGRAPHY, MEMORY (COMPUTERS),...

This disclosure presents a communication receiver system for spacecraft that includes an open loop receiver adapted to receive a communication signal. An ultrastable oscillator (USO) and a tone detector are connected to the open loop receiver. The open loop receiver translates the communication signal to an intermediate frequency signal using a highly stable reference frequency from the USO. The tone detector extracts commands from the communication signal by evaluating the difference between...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RADIO RECEIVERS, SIGNAL DETECTORS, RADIO FREQUENCIES,...

The present invention provides a network device interface and method for digitally connecting a plurality of data channels to a controller using a network bus. The network device interface interprets commands and data received from the controller and polls the data channels in accordance with these commands. Specifically, the network device interface receives digital commands and data from the controller, and based on these commands and data, communicates with the data channels to either...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CHANNELS (DATA TRANSMISSION), CONNECTORS, CONTROLLERS,...

The present invention provides a delay line SAW device fabricated on a lithium niobate substrate and coated with a bilayer of nanocrystalline or other nanomaterials such as nanoparticles or nanowires of palladiumn and metal free pthalocyanine which will respond to hydrogen gas in near real time, at low (room) temperature, without being affected by CO, O.sub.2, CH.sub.4 and other gases, in air ambient or controlled ambient, providing sensitivity to low ppm levels.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ACOUSTICS, COATINGS, DELAY LINES, FABRICATION, GAS DETECTORS,...

An optical profile determining apparatus includes an optical detector and an optical source. The optical source generates a transmit beam including a plurality of wavelengths, and generates a reference beam including the plurality of wavelengths. Optical elements direct the transmit beam to a target, direct a resulting reflected transmit beam back from the target to the optical detector, and combine the reference beam with the reflected transmit beam so that a profile of the target is based...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OPTICAL PROPERTIES, TARGETS, PATENTS, Montgomery, Robert M....

Devices with two or more coupled resonators to produce narrow spectral responses due to interference of signals that transmit through the resonators and techniques for operating such devices to achieve certain operating characteristics are described. The devices may be optical devices where optical resonators such as whispering gallery mode resonators may be used. In one implementation, at least one of the coupled optical resonators is a tunable resonator and is tuned to change its resonance...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OPTICAL RESONATORS, SPECTRA, SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY, PATENTS,...

A single source precursor for depositing ternary I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite materials useful as semiconductors. The single source precursor has the I-III-VI.sub.2 stoichiometry built into a single precursor molecular structure which degrades on heating or pyrolysis to yield the desired I-III-VI.sub.2 ternary chalcopyrite. The single source precursors effectively degrade to yield the ternary chalcopyrite at low temperature, e.g. below 500.degree. C., and are useful to deposit thin film ternary...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DEPOSITION, THIN FILMS, SOLAR CELLS, PYRITES, PATENTS,...

A non-catalytic process for the production of carbon nanotubes includes supplying an electric current to a carbon anode and a carbon cathode which have been securely positioned in the open atmosphere with a gap between them. The electric current creates an electric arc between the carbon anode and the carbon cathode, which causes carbon to be vaporized from the carbon anode and a carbonaceous residue to be deposited on the carbon cathode. Inert gas is pumped into the gap to flush out oxygen,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ANODES, CARBON, CARBON NANOTUBES, CATHODES, ELECTRIC CURRENT,...

Shortwave infrared detectors are critical for several applications including remote sensing and optical communications. Several detectors are commercially available for this wavelength range, but they lack sufficient gain, which limits their detectivity. The characterization results of an AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb phototransistor for shortwave IR application are reported. The phototransistor is grown using molecular beam epitaxy technique. Spectral response measurements showed a uniform responsivity...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INFRARED DETECTORS, PHOTOTRANSISTORS, HETEROJUNCTION DEVICES,...

An interferometry apparatus comprises one or more beam generators, a detector, and a plurality of optical paths along which one or more beams of light propagate. Disposed along at least one of the optical paths is an apodization mask to shape one of the beams.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), APODIZATION, INTERFEROMETERS, INTERFEROMETRY, LIGHT BEAMS,...

Health risk to astronauts due to exposure to ionizing radiation is a primary concern for exploration missions and may become the limiting factor for long duration missions. Methodologies for evaluating this risk in terms of radiation protection quantities such as dose, dose equivalent, gray equivalent, and effective dose are described. Environment models (galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event), vehicle/habitat geometry models, human geometry models, and transport codes are discussed and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RADIATION PROTECTION, ASTRONAUTS, HEALTH, RISK, RADIATION...

With the advent of SOFIA, Herschel, and SAFIR, new wavelength regions will become routinely accessible for astronomical spectroscopy, particularly at submm frequencies (0.5-1.1 THz). Molecular emission dominates the spectra of dense interstellar gas at these wavelengths. Because heterodyne detectors are major instruments of these missions, accurate knowledge of transition frequencies is crucial for their success. The Ziurys spectroscopy laboratory has been focusing on the measurement of the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ASTROPHYSICS, CYANIDES, SUBMILLIMETER WAVES, METAL IONS,...

The heater (or acceptor) of a Stirling engine, where most of the thermal energy is accepted into the engine by heat transfer, is the hottest part of the engine. Almost as hot is the adjacent expansion space of the engine. In the expansion space, the flow is oscillatory, impinging on a two-dimensional concavely-curved surface. Knowing the heat transfer on the inside surface of the engine head is critical to the engine design for efficiency and reliability. However, the flow in this region is not...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), STIRLING ENGINES, STIRLING CYCLE, HEAT TRANSFER, FLUID...

The United States (US) Vision for Space Exploration, announced in January 2004, outlines the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) strategic goals and objectives, including retiring the Space Shuttle and replacing it with new space transportation systems for missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that the new human-rated Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) lofts into space early next decade will initially ferry astronauts to the International Space...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CARGO, LAUNCH VEHICLES, NASA SPACE PROGRAMS, SPACECREWS,...

The NASA Langley Aluminum Testbed Cylinder (ATC) was designed to serve as a universal structure for evaluating structural acoustic codes, modeling techniques and optimization methods used in the prediction of aircraft interior noise. Finite element models were developed for the components of the ATC based on the geometric, structural and material properties of the physical test structure. Numerically predicted modal frequencies for the longitudinal stringer, ring frame and dome component...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ACOUSTICS, ALUMINUM, FINITE ELEMENT METHOD, MATHEMATICAL...

A continuum damage model for the prediction of damage onset and structural collapse of structures manufactured in fiber-reinforced plastic laminates is proposed. The principal damage mechanisms occurring in the longitudinal and transverse directions of a ply are represented by a damage tensor that is fixed in space. Crack closure under load reversal effects are taken into account using damage variables established as a function of the sign of the components of the stress tensor. Damage...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPOSITE MATERIALS, DAMAGE, CONTINUUM MODELING, FIBER...

eta Car is surrounded by bipolar shells, the Homunculus and the internal Little Homunculus, that are observed in both emission and absorption. Thin disks, located between the bipolar lobes, include the very bright Weigelt blobs and the neutral emission structure called the Strontium filament. All are affected by changes in UV and X-Ray flux of the binary system. For example, the normally ionized Little Homunculus recombines during the few month long spectroscopic minimum and then reionizes....
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LABORATORY ASTROPHYSICS, GAMMA RAY BURSTS, SPECTROSCOPY,...

Remcom's XFDTD software was used to model the properties of a two-dimensional left-handed metamaterial (LHM) flat lens. The focusing capability and attenuation of the material were examined. The results showed strong agreement with experimental results and theoretical predictions of focusing effects and focal length. The inherent attenuation in the model corresponds well with the experimental results and implies that the code does a reasonably accurate job of modeling the actual metamaterial.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ABSORBERS (MATERIALS), LENSES, REFRACTION, MICROWAVES, TWO...

Research committed by the Langley Research Center through 1995 resulting in the HZETRN code provides the current basis for shield design methods according to NASA STD-3000 (2005). With this new prominence, the database, basic numerical procedures, and algorithms are being re-examined with new methods of verification and validation being implemented to capture a well defined algorithm for engineering design processes to be used in this early development phase of the Bush initiative. This process...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RADIATION SHIELDING, SPACECRAFT DESIGN, COMPUTER PROGRAMS,...

NASA s Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program was formed in 1999 at Glenn Research Center to manage an important national propulsion program for the Space Agency. The UEET program s focus is on developing innovative technologies to enable intelligent, environmentally friendly, and clean-burning turbine engines capable of reducing harmful emissions while maintaining high performance and increasing reliability. Seven technology projects exist under the program, with each project working...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES, HIGH TEMPERATURE, TURBINE ENGINES,...

Real time cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed in real time in a useful form on a computer screen or monitor. The monitor displays the high frequency data from the QRS complex in units of microvolts, juxtaposed with a display of conventional ECG data in units of millivolts or microvolts. The high frequency data are analyzed for their root mean square (RMS) voltage values and the discrete RMS values...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY, HEART, HIGH FREQUENCIES, PATIENTS, REAL...

A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DISPENSERS, MICROPARTICLES, MEMBRANES, PATENTS, Morrison,...

This presentation discusses the simulation approach to whole-engine for physical consistency, REV regenerator modeling, grid layering for smoothness, and quality, conjugate heat transfer method adjustment, high-speed low cost parallel cluster, and debugging.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HIGH SPEED, REGENERATORS, SIMULATION, STIRLING CYCLE,...

An overview of dynamic test techniques used at NASA Langley Research Center on scale models to obtain a comprehensive flight dynamics characterization of aerospace vehicles is presented. Dynamic test techniques have been used at Langley Research Center since the 1920s. This paper will provide a partial overview of the current techniques available at Langley Research Center. The paper will discuss the dynamic scaling necessary to address the often hard-to-achieve similitude requirements for...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DYNAMIC TESTS, SCALE MODELS, GENERAL OVERVIEWS, AEROSPACE...

Ultem(TM) was mixed with three different carbon-based nanofillers in efforts to increase the thermal conductivity of the polymer. After initial mixing, the nanocomposites were extruded or processed via the Laboratory Mixing Molder (LMM) process. High resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) revealed significant alignment of the nanofillers in the extruded samples. Thermal conductivity measurements were made both in the direction and perpendicular to the direction of alignment of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CARBON COMPOUNDS, NANOCOMPOSITES, POLYIMIDES, THERMAL...

Presents supplemental figures to the original report of the same name. The original report detailed laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) flow field measurements made upstream of two fans, one forward-swept and one aft-swept, in order to learn more about the shocks which propagate upstream of these rotors when they are operated at supersonic tip speeds. The LDV data illustrated how the perturbations in the upstream flow field created by the rotating blades varied with axial position, radial position...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LASER DOPPLER VELOCIMETERS, PERTURBATION, ROTOR SPEED,...

A flight-qualified, lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery developed for the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Landeris undergoing life-testing at low temperature under a low-Earth-orbit (LEO) profile to assess its capability to provide long term energy storage for aerospace missions. NASA has embarked upon an ambitious course to return humans to the moon by 2015-2020 in preparation for robotic and human exploration of Mars and robotic exploration of the moons of outer planets. Li-ion batteries are excellent...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ELECTRIC BATTERIES, LOW TEMPERATURE, ENERGY STORAGE, LITHIUM,...

The semi-direct effects of dust aerosols are analyzed over eastern Asia using 2 years (June 2002 to June 2004) of data from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite, and 18 years (1984 to 2001) of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data. The results show that the water path of dust-contaminated clouds is considerably smaller than that of dust-free clouds....
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CLOUDS (METEOROLOGY), MODIS (RADIOMETRY), ANNUAL VARIATIONS,...

Polarization-sensitive lidars have proven to be highly effective in discriminating between spherical and non-spherical particles in the atmosphere. These lidars use a linearly polarized laser and are equipped with a receiver that can separately measure the components of the return signal polarized parallel and perpendicular to the outgoing beam. In this work we describe a technique for calibrating polarization-sensitive lidars that was originally developed at NASA s Langley Research Center...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CLOUDS (METEOROLOGY), CLIMATOLOGY, DEPOLARIZATION, SATELLITE...

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Access 5 Project Office sponsored a cooperative collision avoidance flight demonstration program for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). This flight test was accomplished between September 21st and September 27th 2005 from the Mojave Airport, Mojave, California. The objective of these flights was to collect data for the Access 5 Cooperative Collision Avoidance (CCA) Work Package simulation effort, i.e., to gather data under select conditions...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COLLISION AVOIDANCE, FLIGHT TESTS, SITUATIONAL AWARENESS,...

In this paper, we discuss the estimation of random errors due to shot noise in backscatter lidar observations that use either photomultiplier tube (PMT) or avalanche photodiode (APD) detectors. The statistical characteristics of photodetection are reviewed, and photon count distributions of solar background signals and laser backscatter signals are examined using airborne lidar observations at 532 nm using a photon-counting mode APD. Both distributions appear to be Poisson, indicating that the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RANDOM ERRORS, SHOT NOISE, BACKSCATTERING, ERROR ANALYSIS,...

Atmospheric aerosols influence climate by scattering and absorbing radiation in clear air (direct effects) and by serving as cloud condensation nuclei, modifying the microphysical properties of clouds, influencing radiation and precipitation development (indirect effects). Much of present uncertainty in forcing of climate change is due to uncertainty in the relations between aerosol microphysical and optical properties and their radiative influences (direct effects) and between microphysical...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RADIATION MEASUREMENT, AEROSOLS, ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION,...

NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) is implementing a management approach for modeling and simulation (M&S) that will provide decision-makers information on the model's fidelity, credibility, and quality. This information will allow the decision-maker to understand the risks involved in using a model's results in the decision-making process. This presentation will discuss NASA's overall approach to achieving formal accreditation of its models or simulations supporting...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACE EXPLORATION, NASA PROGRAMS, MODELS, SIMULATION, SYSTEMS...

The signal processing aspect of a 2-m wavelength coherent Doppler lidar system under development at NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia is investigated in this paper. The lidar system is named VALIDAR (validation lidar) and its signal processing program estimates and displays various wind parameters in real-time as data acquisition occurs. The goal is to improve the quality of the current estimates such as power, Doppler shift, wind speed, and wind direction, especially in low...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DOPPLER EFFECT, DOPPLER RADAR, NONLINEARITY, OPTICAL RADAR,...

This paper describes the continued development of an actuator, energized by pulsed detonations, that provides a pulsed jet suitable for flow control in high-speed applications. A high-speed valve, capable of delivering a pulsed stream of reactants a mixture of H2 and air at rates of up to 1500 pulses per second, has been constructed. The reactants burn in a resonant tube and the products exit the tube as a pulsed jet. High frequency pressure transducers have been used to monitor the pressure...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ACTUATORS, AIR FLOW, HIGH FREQUENCIES, PULSE DETONATION...

Research in wireless sensor network technology has exploded in the last decade. Promises of complex and ubiquitous control of the physical environment by these networks open avenues for new kinds of science and business. Due to the small size and low cost of sensor devices, visionaries promise systems enabled by deployment of massive numbers of sensors working in concert. Although the reduction in size has been phenomenal it results in severe limitations on the computing, communicating, and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), WIRELESS COMMUNICATION, SENSORS, COMMUNICATION NETWORKS,...

The purpose of this paper is to address the technical challenges and requirements of modal testing a solar sail system (Fig. 1). Specific objectives of this work are to investigate the effectiveness (i.e. accuracy, precision, repeatability, etc.) of laser vibrometer measurements obtained on solar sail components (i.e. sail membrane quadrant and masts) actuated with various excitation methods in vacuum conditions. Results from this work will be used to determine the appropriate test technique...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GROUND TESTS, SOLAR SAILS, VIBRATION METERS, PIEZOELECTRIC...

We report on the development of a new measurement technique to quantitatively assess the condition of wire crimp connections. This ultrasonic (UT) method transmits high frequency sound waves through the joint under inspection. The wire-crimp region filters and scatters the ultrasonic energy as it passes through the crimp and wire. The resulting output (both time and frequency domains) provides a quantitative measure of the joint quality that is independent and unaffected by current. Crimps of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOUND WAVES, ULTRASONICS, FOLDING, ELECTRIC CONNECTORS,...

This viewgraph presentation reviews the characterization of radiometric data by NASA. The objective was to perform radiometric vicarious calibrations of imagery and compare with vendor-provided calibration coefficients. The approach was to use multiple, well-characterized sites. These sites are widely used by the NASA science community for radiometric characterization of airborne and space borne sensors. Using the data from these sites, the investigators performed independent characterizations...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CALIBRATING, DATA PROCESSING, RADIOMETERS, AIRBORNE...

Coherent lidars at 2-micron wavelengths from holmium or thulium solid-state lasers have been in use to measure wind for applications in meteorology, aircraft wake vortex tracking, and turbulence detection [1,2,3] These field-deployed lidars, however, have generally been of a pulse energy of a few millijoules, limiting their range capability or restricting operation to regions of high aerosol concentration such as the atmospheric boundary layer. Technology improvements in the form of high-energy...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), WIND MEASUREMENT, DOPPLER RADAR, OPTICAL RADAR, WAKES,...

Future NASA deep space exploration missions are expected in some cases to require telecommunication systems capable of operating at very high data rates (potentially 1 Gbps or more) for the transmission back to Earth of large volumes of scientific data, which means high frequency transmitters with large bandwidth. Among the Ka band frequencies of interest are the present 500 MHz Deep Space Network (DSN) band of 31.8 to 32.3 GHz and a broader band at 37-38 GHz allocated for space science [1]....
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA TRANSMISSION, HIGH FREQUENCIES, NASA SPACE PROGRAMS,...

Contents include the following: Dual opposed convertors. High efficiency. Low mass space power. One-dimensional analysis. Fast computation. Design optimizations are easily done. Need for multidimensional modeling. Axisymmetric simulation. Flow characteristics. Low mach number. Laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow. Conjugate heat transfer. Third order analysis. Recent whole engine modeling. Regenerator geometry. Turbulence modeling. Flat head heater not 1-D. Empirical coefficients needed....
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLOW CHARACTERISTICS, FLOW DISTRIBUTION, HEAT TRANSFER,...

One important objective of NASA has always been to inspire the next generation. NASA and human space flight have a unique ability to capture the imaginations of both students and teachers. The presence of humans onboard the International Space Station (ISS) for more than five years now has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing the interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Yet even before the Expedition 1 crew...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, SPACE SHUTTLE MISSIONS, NASA...

Data Analysis is one of the keys to an effective Earned Value Management (EVM) Process. Project Managers (PM) must continually evaluate data in assessing the health of their projects. Good analysis of data can assist PMs in making better decisions in managing projects. To better support our P Ms, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently renewed its emphasis on sound EVM data analysis practices and processes, During this presentation we...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NASA PROGRAMS, DECISION MAKING, PROCEDURES, DATA MANAGEMENT,...

The development of an Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) for space vehicles has become a great concern. Smart Sensor Networks is one of the promising technologies that are catching a lot of attention. In this paper, we propose to a qualitative comparison of several local event (hot spot) detection algorithms in centralized redundant sensor networks. The algorithms are compared regarding their ability to locate and evaluate the event under noise and sensor failures. The purpose of this...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICES, DIGITAL ELECTRONICS,...

An important issue for temporal planners is the ability to handle temporal uncertainty. Recent papers have addressed the question of how to tell whether a temporal network is Dynamically Controllable, i.e., whether the temporal requirements are feasible in the light of uncertain durations of some processes. Previous work has presented an O(N5) algorithm for testing this property. Here, we introduce a new analysis of temporal cycles that leads to an O(N4) algorithm.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), UNCERTAIN SYSTEMS, PLANNING, CONTROLLABILITY, SCHEDULES,...

The on-orbit management of liquid hydrogen planned for the return to the moon will introduce new considerations not encountered in previous missions. This paper identifies critical liquid hydrogen sensing needs from the perspective of reliable on-orbit cryogenic fluid management, and contrasts the fundamental differences in fluid and thermodynamic behavior for ground-based versus on-orbit conditions. Opportunities for advanced sensor development and implementation are explored in the context of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LIQUID HYDROGEN, SENSORS, SPACE EXPLORATION, CRYOGENICS,...

Navigation-knowing where one is and finding a safe route-is a fundamental aspect of all exploration. In unfamiliar terrain, one may use maps and instruments such as a compass or binoculars to assist, and people often collaborate in finding their way. This paper analyzes a group of people driving a humvee from a base camp to the north coast of Devon Island in the High Canadian Arctic. A complete audio recording and video during most stops allows a quantitative and semantic analysis of the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NAVIGATION, TERRAIN, COASTS, ISLANDS, TRUCKS, GLOBAL...

Description of the performance of a simplified dynamic inversion controller with neural network augmentation follows. Simulation studies focus on the results with and without neural network adaptation through the use of an F-15 aircraft simulator that has been modified to include canards. Simulated control law performance with a surface failure, in addition to an aerodynamic failure, is presented. The aircraft, with adaptation, attempts to minimize the inertial cross-coupling effect of the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONTROLLERS, INVERSIONS, NEURAL NETS, F-15 AIRCRAFT, CROSS...

A three-component fiber-optic based Doppler Global Velocimeter was constructed, evaluated and used to measure shock structures about a low-sonic boom model in a Mach 2 flow. The system was designed to have maximum flexibility in its ability to measure flows with restricted optical access and in various facilities. System layout is described along with techniques developed for production supersonic testing. System evaluation in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel showed a common acceptance angle of f4...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FIBER OPTICS, FLOW DISTRIBUTION, SUPERSONIC FLOW, VELOCITY...

Graves Nunataks (GRA) 95209 has been hailed as the missing link of core formation processes in the acapulcoitelodranite parent asteroid because of the presence of a complex cm-scale metal vein network. Because the apparent liquid temperature of the metal vein (approximately 1500 C) is higher than inferred for the metamorphic grade of the meteorite, questions regarding the vein s original composition, temperature, and mechanism of emplacement have arisen. We have determined trace siderophile...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ASTEROIDS, METALS, METAMORPHISM (GEOLOGY), VEINS (PETROLOGY),...

During the passage of a cold front in March 2002, bio-optical properties examined in coastal waters impacted by the Mississippi River indicated westward advective flows and increasing river discharge containing a larger nonalgal particle content contributed significantly to surface optical variability. A comparison of seasonal data from three cruises indicated spectral models of absorption and scattering to be generally consistent with other coastal environments, while their parameterization in...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, COASTAL WATER, COLD FRONTS, MISSISSIPPI RIVER...

Cartesian-mesh methods are perhaps the most promising approach for addressing the issues of flow solution automation for aerodynamic design problems. In these methods, the discretization of the wetted surface is decoupled from that of the volume mesh. This not only enables fast and robust mesh generation for geometry of arbitrary complexity, but also facilitates access to geometry modeling and manipulation using parametric Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools. Our goal is to combine the automation...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CARTESIAN COORDINATES, SENSITIVITY, SHAPE OPTIMIZATION, GRID...

Lunar resource utilization has focused principally on the extraction of oxygen from the lunar regolith. A number of schemes have been proposed for oxygen extraction from Ilmenite and Anorthite. Serendipitously, these schemes have as their by-products (or more directly as their "waste products"), materials needed for the fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells. Thus lunar surface possesses both the elemental components needed for the fabrication of silicon solar cells and a vacuum...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS, SOLAR CELLS, MOON, LUNAR SURFACE, LUNAR...

The focus of this work was to establish an approach to generate carefully controlled data that can conclusively establish heat pipe operating life with material-fluid combinations capable of extended operation. To accomplish this goal acceleration is required to compress 10 years of operational life into 3 years of laboratory testing through a combination of increased temperature and mass fluence. Specific test series have been identi3ed, based on American Society for Testing and Materials...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HEAT PIPES, SERVICE LIFE, FLUENCE, INDUCTION HEATING, RADIO...

Free-flight tests of a large-scale lifting-body configuration, the X-38 aircraft, were conducted using tufts to characterize the flow on the aft end, specifically in the inboard region of the vertical fins. Pressure data was collected on the fins and base. Flow direction and movement were correlated with surface pressure and flight condition. The X-38 was conceived to be a rescue vehicle for the International Space Station. The vehicle shape was derived from the U.S. Air Force X-24 lifting...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FREE FLIGHT, LIFTING BODIES, AERODYNAMIC CONFIGURATIONS, X-38...

Hubble Space Telescope images with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 of the young, oxygen-rich, Crab-like supernova remnant SNR0540-69.3 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) reveal details of the emission distribution and the relationship between the expanding ejecta and synchrotron nebula. The emission distributions appear very similar to those seen in the Crab nebula, with the ejecta located in a thin envelope surrounding the synchrotron nebula. The [O III] emission is more extended than other...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SUPERNOVA REMNANTS, HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE, MASSIVE STARS,...

Observational evidences are presented showing that the Indian subcontinent and surrounding regions are subject to heavy loading of absorbing aerosols (dust and black carbon), with strong seasonality closely linked to the monsoon annual rainfall cycle. Increased loading of absorbing aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic Plain in April-May is associated with a) increased heating of the upper troposphere over the Tibetan Plateau, b) an advance of the monsoon rainy season, and c) subsequent enhancement...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROSOLS, ANNUAL VARIATIONS, ASIA, MONSOONS, CARBON, DUST,...

Adaptive turbine engine technologies are assessed for their potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from commercial air transports.Technologies including inlet, fan, and compressor flow control, compressor stall control, blade clearance control, combustion control, active bearings and enabling technologies such as active materials and wireless sensors are discussed. The method of systems assessment is described, including strengths and weaknesses of the approach. Performance benefit...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CARBON DIOXIDE, TURBINE ENGINES, COMBUSTION CONTROL, INLET...

A multilayer thin film strain sensor for large temperature range use is under development using a reactively-sputtered process. The sensor is capable of being fabricated in fine line widths utilizing the sacrificial-layer lift-off process that is used for micro-fabricated noble-metal sensors. Tantalum nitride films were optimized using reactive sputtering with an unbalanced magnetron source. A first approximation model of multilayer resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance was used...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), THIN FILMS, HIGH TEMPERATURE, THERMAL STABILITY, LOW...

Battery cell defect classification is primarily done manually by a human conducting a visual inspection to determine if the battery cell is acceptable for a particular use or device. Human visual inspection is a time consuming task when compared to an inspection process conducted by a machine vision system. Human inspection is also subject to human error and fatigue over time. We present a machine vision technique that can be used to automatically identify defective sections of battery cells...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ELECTRIC BATTERIES, CELL CATHODES, CLASSIFICATIONS, CELL...

As part of the automated response to a new gamma-ray burst (GRB), the Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) instrument on Swift starts a 200-second exposure with the V filter within approximately 100 seconds of the BAT burst trigger. The instrument searches for sources in a 8' x 8' region, and sends the list of sources and a 160" x 160" sub-image centered on the burst position to the ground via Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). These raw products and additional...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AFTERGLOWS, GAMMA RAY BURSTS, IDENTIFYING, GAMMA RAY...

We have used a NanoSIMS ion microprobe to map sub-micron-scale distributions of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, silicon, and oxygen in organic microfossils and laminae from the approximately 0.85 Ga Bitter Springs Formation of Australia. The data provide clues about the original chemistry of the microfossils, the silicification process, and biosignatures of specific microorganisms and microbial communities. Chemical maps of fossil unicells and filaments reveal distinct wall-and sheath-like structures...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FOSSILS, MICROORGANISMS, ORGANIC MATERIALS, PRECAMBRIAN...

An important class of mobile manipulation problems are move-to-grasp problems where a mobile robot must navigate to and pick up an object. One of the distinguishing features of this class of tasks is its coarse-to-fine structure. Near the beginning of the task, the robot can only sense the target object coarsely or indirectly and make gross motion toward the object. However, after the robot has located and approached the object, the robot must finely control its grasping contacts using precise...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONTROLLERS, TACTILE SENSORS (ROBOTICS), ROBOT DYNAMICS,...

Application of the newly emerged space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method to compressible Navier-Stokes equations is studied. In contrast to Euler equations solvers, several issues such as boundary conditions, numerical dissipation, and grid stiffness warrant systematic investigations and validations. Non-reflecting boundary conditions applied at the truncated boundary are also investigated from the stand point of acoustic wave propagation. Validations of the numerical...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), UNSTRUCTURED GRIDS (MATHEMATICS), NAVIER-STOKES EQUATION,...

Static curves and resistive load switching characteristics of a 600 V, 4 A rated, SiC-based NPN bipolar power transistor (BJT) were observed at selected temperatures from 23 to 200 C. All testing was done in a pulse mode at low duty cycle (approx. 0.1 percent). Turn-on was driven by an adjustable base current pulse and turn-off was accelerated by a negative base voltage pulse of either 7 or 0.6 V. Switching observations were done at base drive currents (I(sub B)) up to 400 mA and collector...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), STATIC CHARACTERISTICS, SWITCHING, SILICON CARBIDES, BIPOLAR...

The method of flight-testing the Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) Second Generation (Gen-2) project on the NASA NF-15B is herein described. The Gen-2 project objective includes flight-testing a dynamic inversion controller augmented by a direct adaptive neural network to demonstrate performance improvements in the presence of simulated failure/damage. The Gen-2 objectives as implemented on the NASA NF-15B created challenges for software design, structural loading limitations, and flight...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLIGHT CONTROL, GROUND BASED CONTROL, ADAPTIVE CONTROL,...

The issue of orbital debris resulting from human activities in space is a growing concern for the space users' community. Waste generated in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) can stay in orbit for a long time, creating significant hazards for other spacecraft flying at lower intercepting orbits. Many spacecraft, especially crewed vehicles, are required to vent fluids into space. These fluids include propellant, wastewater, excess condensate, and others. It is important to analyze the behavior of particles...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SUBLIMATION, SPACE DEBRIS, ICE, PARTICLES, SPACECRAFT ORBITS,...

Nanolaminate manufacturing (NLM) is a new way of developing materials whose properties can far exceed those of homogeneous materials. Traditional alloys, composites and bulk laminates tend to average the properties of the materials from which they were made. With nanostructured materials, the high density of interfaces between dissimilar materials results in novel material properties. For example, materials made -from alternating nanoscale layers of metals and oxides have exhibited thermal...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, NICKEL OXIDES, ALUMINUM OXIDES,...

We review the history of the development of the modern theory of shock waves. Several attempts at an early-theory quickly collapsed for lack of foundations in mathematics and thermodynamics. It is not until the works of Rankine and later Hugoniot that a full theory is established. Rankine is the first to show that within the shock a non-adiabatic process must occur. Hugoniot showed that in the absence of viscosity and heat conduction conservation of energy implies conservation of entropy in...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SHOCK WAVES, HEAT TRANSFER, HISTORIES, ENTROPY, HUGONIOT...

Several unique issues related to mated flight control have been broadly identified. These issues include redundancies in subsystems, controllability, command and control authority distribution, information flow across elements, and changes and variability in system characteristics due to variable mated configurations during operations. Architectural options for mated flight control are discussed in the context of evolving space systems.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLIGHT CONTROL, CONTROLLABILITY, COMMAND AND CONTROL,...

This viewgraph presentation reviews the 1. Motivation for the study 2. Nonlinear Model Form 3. Structure Detection 4. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) 5. Objectives 6. Results 7. Assess LASSO as a Structure Detection Tool: Simulated Nonlinear Models 8. Applicability to Complex Systems: F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing Flight Test Data. The authors conclude that 1. this is a novel approach for detecting the structure of highly over-parameterised nonlinear models in...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROELASTICITY, NONLINEAR SYSTEMS, NONLINEARITY, SHRINKAGE,...

Modeling and prediction of flow fields and geyser formation in microgravity cryogenic propellant tanks was investigated. A computational simulation was used to reproduce the test matrix of experimental results performed by other investigators, as well as to model the flows in a larger tank. An underprediction of geyser height by the model led to a sensitivity study to determine if variations in surface tension coefficient, contact angle, or jet pipe turbulence significantly influence the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLOW DISTRIBUTION, CRYOGENICS, PROPELLANT TANKS, GEYSERS,...

The MXER Tether technology development is a high-payoff/high-risk investment area within the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program. The ISPT program is managed by the NASA Headquarters Science Mission Directorate and implemented by the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The MXER concept was identified and competitively ranked within NASA's comprehensive Integrated In-Space Transportation Plan (IISTP); an agency-wide technology assessment activity. The objective of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ELECTRODYNAMICS, TETHERING, MOMENTUM, TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT,...

A model of the optical properties of Al(x)Ga(1-x)As(y)Sb(1-y) and In(x)Ga(1-x)As(y)Sb(1-y) is presented, including the refractive, extinction, absorption and reflection coefficients in terms of the optical dielectric function of the materials. Energy levels and model parameters for each binary compound are interpolated to obtain the needed ternaries and quaternaries for various compositions. Bowing parameters are considered in the interpolation scheme to take into account the deviation of the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GALLIUM ANTIMONIDES, INDIUM ANTIMONIDES, INDIUM GALLIUM...

To support the mission for the NASA Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a program in 2005 to improve the capability to predict local thermal compatibility and heat transfer in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. The ultimate objective was to predict and hence reduce the local peak heat flux due to injector design, resulting in a significant improvement in overall engine reliability and durability. Such analyses are applicable to...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMBUSTION CHAMBERS, HEAT FLUX, HEAT TRANSFER, INJECTORS,...

Operating high power laser diode arrays in long pulse regime of about 1 msec, which is required for pumping 2-micron thulium and holmium-based lasers, greatly limits their useful lifetime. This paper describes performance of laser diode arrays operating in long pulse mode and presents experimental data of the active region temperature and pulse-to-pulse thermal cycling that are the primary cause of their premature failure and rapid degradation. This paper will then offer a viable approach for...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONTINUOUS WAVE LASERS, SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS, RELIABILITY...

This viewgraph slides presentation reviews the program to use unmanned aerial vehicles to gather information to study the Earth, the changes to the climate, and to protect the Earth. Several robot planes are shown, and cooperative programs with other agencies of the U.S. Government are highlighted. Including one with the United States Forest Service, that is planned to assist in locating fires
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PILOTLESS AIRCRAFT, RESEARCH AIRCRAFT, NASA PROGRAMS, EARTH...

A Microscope Imaging System (CMIS) with intelligent controls is disclosed that provides techniques for scanning, identifying, detecting and tracking microscopic changes in selected characteristics or features of various surfaces including, but not limited to, cells, spheres, and manufactured products subject to difficult-to-see imperfections. The practice of the present invention provides applications that include colloidal hard spheres experiments, biological cell detection for patch clamping,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), IMAGE PROCESSING, MICROSCOPY, COLLOIDS, SPHERES, IDENTIFYING,...

A method and apparatus for testing a material such as the water-wall tubes in boilers includes the use of a portable thermal line heater having radiation shields to control the amount of thermal radiation that reaches a thermal imager. A procedure corrects for variations in the initial temperature of the material being inspected. A method of calibrating the testing device to determine an equation relating thickness of the material to temperatures created by the thermal line heater uses...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), THICKNESS, SPECIFIC HEAT, DEFECTS, WALLS, BOILERS,...